Diseases and pests of garlic. the Directory with a photo
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Brief description of diseases and pests of garlic
Pests of garlic
Pests that affect garlic are three main groups:
- the the nematodes
- the pliers
Pests of garlic – insects
Insects – one of the fairly numerous groups of pests that affect garlic. This includes garlic and onion fly, onion gorzalka, onion moth, tobacco and onion thrips.
All insects in the adult stage (imago) have three pairs of legs, their body is divided into three sections: head, thorax, and abdomen. Located on the head eyes, antennae and mouthparts. Chest – wings (one or two pairs) and feet. Mouthparts in insects can be grinding or piercing-sucking.
The development of insects can be incomplete or complete transformation.
When incomplete transformation insects pass through three stages:
- the egg
- the larva (similar in appearance to the adult insect, but smaller)
- the adult insect is the imago.
From complete makeover there are four stages of development:
- the egg
- the larva (apparently not similar to the adult insect)
- the doll
- the adult insect – adult
Pests of garlic – ticks
Mites – pests that damage the garlic during the growing season and storage. Body mites consists of two sections – the cephalothorax and abdomen. Antennae and wings are missing. Adult ticks have four pairs of legs.
In the process of development of the mites pass the following stages:
- the egg
- the larva
- the adult
Mouthparts in larvae and adult mites piercing-sucking. Overwinter in the egg stage or adults. During the summer, give 3-12 generations. Garlic mostly impress two species of ticks – the root (the onion) and garlic, four-legged mites. The latter are especially dangerous in storage, where it can destroy almost the entire crop of garlic.
Disease of garlic
Infectious diseases of garlic mostly:
- the mushrooms
- the bacteria
- the viruses
They spread from plant to plant.
Each group of agents has its own biological characteristics, so methods of dealing with them may be different.
Diseases of garlic – Mushrooms
Fungi cause most of the diseases of garlic. Vegetative body of fungi (the mycelium) is often filamentary structure, and some lower fungi – species of Plasmodium.
Fungi reproduce vegetatively (pieces of mycelium) or spores. Spores are spread by wind, water, insects, man. Getting on the plant, the spores germinate and the mycelium, which penetrates inside the plant or develops on its surface. So there is a infection of plants.
Pathogens of fungal diseases persist in the winter in the bulbs, on plant debris and soil.
Diseases of garlic – the Virus
Viruses are very small non-cellular particles that can only be seen under an electron microscope. Viruses develop only in living plant cells. Persist in plant debris, infected tubers, roots, insects body. In plants that reproduce vegetatively, the viruses from year to year transmitted by planting material, causing a sharp decline in yields.
The virus spreads from plant to plant by insects, mites, during the mechanical contact of sick and healthy plants through wounds, while caring for plants. In plant tissue they come only through mechanical damage. Viral diseases have characteristic signs of damage, which is manifested in discoloration and deformation of plants or individual organs (dwarfism of plants, quadravest, banding, niewinnosci sheet).
In accordance with the foreign data, almost all varieties of garlic, to a greater or lesser extent affected by viral diseases through vegetative method of propagation. This leads to a significant reduction in yield, which in severe cases may be 80-90%.
Garlic affects 10 viruses, but probably more of them. Moreover, a significant threat to garlic are not only viruses, typical for this culture, but also those that affect other plants of the onion family, in particular onions, leeks, shallots, as well as members of other Botanical families.
Very dangerous for garlic is a virus of the yellow dwarf of onions, garlic mosaic virus and the virus yellow banding garlic.
Diseases of garlic – Bacteria
Bacteria. A growing threat to garlic are bacterial diseases. These are called bacteria
- the burkcholderia cepacie Burgh
- the burkholderia gladioli pv. allicola
- the erwinia carotovora
The lesion appears as a soft rot that starts from the neck of the bulb of garlic, watery rot of individual Zubkov and gradual drying and elisanna inner fleshy lobes yellow. Bacteria often transferred by flies, particularly onion and garlic, and their larvae, which penetrate through wounds and mechanical damage during maintenance, cleaning during heavy rains, hail, temporary flooding. The infection manifests itself at temperatures from +4 to +27°C (optimum from +21 to +26°C) and high humidity in the vegetation period and during storage. Clearly only the disease manifests at the end of the growing season (mid – late June) and during storage.