Irrigation of garlic is an essential for a good harvest, because the root system garlic relatively underdeveloped. Consider how garlic water properly.
Garlic plants are very demanding to moisture, due to the special root development and deployment of a large number of roots close to the soil surface. However, due ribbon-like leaves leaves which in most varieties of garlic covered with a waxy coating, garlic is also well suited to atmospheric (non-root) drought.
That garlic refers to such crops are poorly absorb moisture from the soil but it is used sparingly.
Effect of irrigation on yield of garlic
Strict observance of water regime can significantly increase the yield of garlic.
For the full maturation of garlic should respect the same amount of water regardless of region growing.
However, the feature of regional climate (amount of natural rainfall) directly affects the efficiency of irrigation garlic.
Below is some data are confirmed by official investigations:
- According to 1954 (Kuznetsov A.V.) difference in yield between irrigated and non irrigated planting garlic is about 35-42%
- in the arid region yields garlic watering recorded 73% higher than without irrigation in general (research 2016)
In the presence of artificial watering garlic is important is adherence opportunity controlled irrigation (except, of course, especially in rainy periods when there is excess moisture vice versa).
Also, with irrigation system delivered garlic macro nutrients and trace elements.
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How to watering of garlic
When to start watering of garlic
When you need to pour the garlic determined based on measurements of soil moisture. It uses a device to measure soil humidity (moisture).
In general we can say that garlic should be watered when the moisture level on the instrument will show less than 70%
How to determine soil moisture without hydrometer
ON greenhouses or high organic content
Take a handful of earth from the depths of 10 – 20 cm, squeeze it in your hand and reveal his hand:
- if a clod remain outlines fingers – humidity 70%
- while spilling out of soil – humidity less than 60%
- if acting coma wet – soil moisture above 80%.
In the open field
- with a moisture content less than 60% – land com form will not (except heavy loam)
- com if formed, but with slight pressure falling apart – humidity within 70 – 75%
- denser breast, clicking on which felt wet – indicating the presence of moisture at 80 – 85%
- in loamy soil to form a dense, viscous com indicates humidity above 90%
It should be noted that garlic is not waterproof. Therefore, it should not be rearranged. This can lead to detaining.
Garlic irrigation norms
Watering winter garlic in the autumn
During the winter planting garlic in the fall, in the first two weeks after planting, it requires high soil moisture. At this time is sprouting cloves and intense root growth.
After planting garlic in dry soil it must be watered.
Watering garlic in the spring and summer
In different periods of growth of garlic fit different levels of humidity. As a guide for determining irrigation garlic you can use this table.
It estimated mode irrigation drip irrigation on winter garlic medium-loamy ground (lowest moisture content (LMC) = 18.7%) and the scheme of planting 60 + 20 x 6 cm (1.60 m)
|Phase of winter garlic||Pre irrigation soil moisture% LMC||Depth control of moisture, meters||Mean costs of moisture plants garlic , m3 / ha||The value of irrigation norms, m3 / hectare|
|From germination to the 3rd leaf||80||0,15-0,20||7-16||35-40|
|From 3rd to 5th leaf||80||0,15-0,20||15-23||35-40|
|From 5th to 8th leaf||80||0,20-0,25||30-57||65-80|
|Since the shooter and drying leaves||70||0,20-0,25||27-47||65-80|
|From the moment of mass drying leaves until harvest||60||0,20-0,25||9-31||25-40|
Optimal soil moisture during the period from germination to the formation of bulbs should be 80-85% of full capacity.
Reduction of this period to 70-75% indicates the need for irrigation.
Without this yield and marketability of garlic significantly reduced through the formation of small bulbs.
However, about three weeks before the collecting of garlic, humidity should gradually decrease to 60-70%, which contributes to the normal maturation of follicles.
It should also be noted that according to the literature, the first spring watering may be waived if the amount of rainfall during the autumn and winter of 200 mm or more.
The total demand of garlic in water
According to the lecturer PhD. Popova L.M., during the growing season total demand of garlic in water is 2500-3300 m3 / ha (250-330 mm)
USDA conducted research shows the need for optimum winter garlic in water at 425 mm of moisture (including natural precipitation) since the start of the growing season in the spring before harvest (in terms of California, loamy soil).
How often to water the garlic
Of course, should take into account the region of cultivation of garlic and the level of natural precipitation.
Given the support necessary rules humidity, garlic should be watered with watering approximate interval of 1 to 7 days.
When watering garlic
The correct watering garlic in the morning to plant fast dried it reduces disease prevalence.
Watering does not hold if the daily average temperature below 15 C. The water temperature should be below 15 – 18ºS
When stop watering garlic
Typically, stop watering garlic in different terms depending on the purpose of cultivation:
– Storage – watering garlic should end 20 days prior to collection
– For processing raw (non-drying) – 5-7 days
Irrigation systems garlic
Currently, the industrial cultivation of garlic is the most widely used methods of watering garlic:
- surface (ground) drip irrigation
- internal soil (underground) drip irrigation
When watering garlic manner sprayed water from sprinkler systems as rain above the plants.
Benefits of irrigation:
- mobility of irrigation systems
- relatively little work to run the irrigation system
- not obstruct the cultivation of the soil
- the possibility of pesticide
- High initial cost
- great use of water
- the need for large amounts of energy to create the required water pressure
- dependence on irrigation as wind power
- low efficiency in heavy soils to dry climate conditions
- possible negative impact on the cover sheet (salinity, disease)
Surface drip irrigation. Under this system, garlic irrigation water is supplied directly to the plant through the system laid on the dosing tubes, droppers.
The benefits of drip irrigation elevated
- much less water consumption than for sprinkling
- less evaporation than with sprinkler
- the possibility of watering small norms short among irrigation periods
- is not conducive to the emergence of burns on the leaves
Disadvantages drip irrigation elevated
- to replace the tapes watering every 1-3 years
- high complexity in the layout, assembly and repair tapes Drip irrigation
- contamination of droppers
Inside dirt (underground) drip irrigation. This stationary watering system, designed for long-term use. The system is practically no different from the surface drip irrigation. Only drip irrigation pipes laid in the ground and have an increased wall thickness (16 mils). There are special emitters that prevent infiltration through them plant roots.
The benefits of inside dirt drip irrigation
- not obstruct the tillage
- no need annual expansion / collection
- delivery of water and nutrients directly to the root system
Disadvantages inside dirt drip irrigation
- difficulty diagnosing a malfunctioning emitter
- the complexity of routine maintenance
- care system in order to prevent the development of roots in irrigation tubes
- higher initial cost than surface drip irrigation
- It should be noted that the current study did not find differences in crop yield using ground or underground irrigation.
On the video, the procedure for organizing underground drip irrigation
The information was prepared by Andrew Marchenko
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