Why do we use fertilizer for garlic? The effective harvest of garlic is the result of the interaction between plants and the environment in which they grow. With the help of the agrometodic, the manufacturer corrects the environment in order to form the most optimal conditions for a high yield of quality garlic. Such agro techniques include application of fertilizers under garlic.
When determining the necessary amount of fertilizer for garlic, the following factors should be taken into account:
- The current level of soil fertility (humus, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, trace elements), that is, it is necessary to make agrochemical soil analysis
- Know the curve of garlic growth to determine the peak use of nutrients
- Know the curve of absorption of garlic nutrients (mainly nitrogen and potassium)
Organic fertilizers for garlic
Garlic makes high demands on the level of organic matter in the soil, the amount of humus and reacts best to the application of organic fertilizer, the prolonged action of which provides garlic plants with nutrients throughout the growing season.
Organic fertilizer for garlic is made under the predecessor. In particular, fresh cattle and horse dung are used in doses of 40-60 to 80 t / ha, chicken manure is 15 c / ha, if necessary, pig manure – only under the previous crop in a dose of 40 t / ha.
If necessary, half-decomposed manure of cattle in doses of 40-60 tons / ha can be made after removal of the precursor but only for early plowing. In poor sandy loamy soils, even fresh manure is used in this case. However, it is better to apply organic to the previous culture.
Humus in doses of 30-40 t / ha can be applied to the first deep cultivation before planting garlic.
Under spring garlic, organic fertilizer is expedient in the form of semi-decomposed manure, but it can also be fresh in doses of 40-60 t / ha. It is brought in autumn under autumn plowing which is carried out before the spring planting.
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Mineral fertilizers for garlic
As shown by experiments conducted in various soil and climatic zones, high yields of garlic can be obtained by applying mineral fertilizers on an organic background.
Good crop yields were achieved with the introduction of 20 t / ha manure + N60P90K60
There are examples when the application of mineral fertilizers N60P90K60 against the background of 40 tons per hectare of humus added garlic productivity by 1.1 tons per hectare compared with the application of mineral fertilizers in the control plot.
Doses of mineral fertilizers for garlic are determined, taking into account the level of the planned harvest and the removal of the main nutrients necessary for its formation.
To produce 1 ton of production, garlic plants are used: nitrogen – 10-12 kg of phosphorus – 6-7 kg; Potassium – 7-8 kg. The coefficients of using basic nutrients from the soil by garlic are: nitrogen – 33.52%; Phosphorus – 7.35% and potassium – 10.0%.
The average quantities of mineral fertilizers for garlic on different soil types range from N60-120P60-90K to 90-120 150-180
When to apply fertilizers for garlic
According to domestic recommendations, half of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers should be added for plowing, the second – for fertilizing.
Approximately a third of nitrogen fertilizers are expedient for pre-plant cultivation, which remains – in fertilizing.
As already noted, the garlic feeding program should be developed taking into account the stages of growth. That is why it is important to determine two points in the growth of garlic for the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers.
The first “A” – is associated with the appearance of 3-4 green leaves after the beginning of vegetation. This point indicates the time when the nitrogen fertilizer was applied to the garlic. If you make earlier (for example, in the fall), then it is in vain to spend nitrogen fertilizer, because the plant does not absorb it in a significant amount, because at first, it uses reserves from the landing gear, and secondly, there is still not enough green mass for growth which requires nitrogen.
The second point “B” is associated with the appearance of 6-9 green leaves depending on the variety and indicates the beginning of the stage of rapid vegetative growth. From this moment it is not recommended to continue dressing garlic with nitrogen fertilizers, not only because the plant will not be able to effectively use these fertilizers, but also because there is a risk of loss of crop quality due to deformation of the bulb.
The order of application of nitrogen fertilizers for garlic is largely dependent on the irrigation system.
If the water supply is carried out by sprinkling or through furrows, then top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers for garlic should be divided into at least three 25% -35% -40% of the total application rate starting from point “A” (this is from March for winter garlic) .
If irrigation is carried out through a “drop”, then the nitrogen fertilizer for garlic is best introduced through the drip irrigation system in smaller volumes but more often without creating abrupt changes.
According to European technologies, phosphate-potash fertilizers will have to be completely poured into plowing half of the nitrogen fertilizers – under vigorous cultivation, the second – in fertilizing.
Using mineral fertilizers for garlic, it is necessary not only to strictly control their quantity, but also to choose those forms that are most favorable for the culture of garlic. In particular, you can make such fertilizers for garlic:
- Nitrogen fertilizer for garlic – in the form of ammonium nitrate (33-35%);
- Phosphate fertilizer for garlic – in the form of superphosphate (19-20%);
- Potassium fertilizer for garlic – only in sulfuric form, in particular: potassium sulfate (45-50%); Calimagnesia (24-30%); Kalimag (17-19%);
- Complex fertilizers – nitroammophosco with N content (16-17%), P205 (16-17%), K20 (16-17%).
Garlic responds very well to wood ashes, which can be placed under pre-planting cultivation in doses of 150-200 kg / ha.
Working with mineral fertilizers, it must be remembered that each of them has a corresponding nutrient content, which is indicated near the name of the fertilizer. For example, of the listed ammonium nitrate has 33-35% pure nitrogen. This means that in 100 kg (1 cent) of ammonium nitrate contains only 33-35 kg of pure nitrogen. In textbooks, reference books, the quantity of a pure element – nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium is predominantly called.
Moreover, fertilizers are denoted by NPK symbols and the required amount of nutrients in them is written in small digits. For example, if you need 35 kg of pure nitrogen to feed, N35 is written. This means that for fertilizing you need to take 100 kg of ammonium nitrate.
In recent years, through an acute shortage of organic fertilizers, many farms grow garlic only with mineral fertilizer. And this, when reproducing the seeds for many years, leads to a deterioration in the quality and seed characteristics of garlic, especially on low-humus soils.
The introduction of relatively low doses of organic fertilizers, together with mineral fertilizers, significantly improves marketability, keeping quality, to a certain extent, seed quality and productivity.
Fertilizer for garlic – green manure
Obviously, in the absence of organic fertilizers, it is first of all necessary to look for organic substitutes. Therefore, one can not ignore such an important factor of organic enrichment of soils, like green fertilizer, which unites a number of so-called green manure. The use of green manure not only replenishes the soil with organic matter and, consequently, with nitrogen but also promotes the decomposition of sparingly soluble phosphorus compounds from the lower horizons, reduces the loss of moisture and mobile nutrients in the soil, improves its agrophysical parameters and reduces clogging. In addition, what is very important for garlic, individual green manure shows a phytosanitary effect, especially limiting the development of one of the most common pest of garlic in Ukraine – the nematode.
Such green manure as Vicia sativa, especially lupine, in particular bitter, nematode does not affect and, consequently, does not develop. Substantially restricts the development of nematodes in mustard soil.
Sidereal cultures are sown where the same year garlic will be planted. And the bitter lupine will occupy the field from early spring, and mustard can be sown both independently and in an intermediate culture, most often after winter rye for green fodder.
Lupine bitter must be sown early in the spring with a seed rate of similar seeds of 140-160 kg / ha on a phosphate-potassium background (60 kg d.q.) / ha. Lupine is pried in the phase of gray bobics in early August that is 2-2.5 months before planting garlic. During this time there are processes of preliminary scheduling of the sidereal mass with the subsequent use of nutritious elements by garlic. Such agro-management, in addition to other positive indicators is equal in effectiveness to bringing 25-30 tons of manure per 1 ha.
The sowing of mustard white after winter rye on green forage makes it possible for a 45-55 days of vegetation to obtain a biomass yield of 250-300 c / ha, which is 120-140 kg of nitrogen (Ї4), 35-45 kg of phosphorus (P205), 140-150 kg Potassium (K20) per hectare. After the plowing in early August, two months remain for the decomposition of biomass, the preparation of soil and the planting of winter garlic in the optimal time.
Small video of how we planted garlic in 2016. From morning till night ))
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